Henryk Kowalczyk was born in Żabianka in 1956. He was a Sejm Deputy during its 5th, 6th 7th and 8th terms.
In 1980, he graduated from the Faculty of Mathematics of the University of Warsaw. In 1979-1990 he worked as a mathematics teacher at the Agricultural Schools Complex in Golądkowo.
He served as a head of the Winnica municipality in 1990-1998 and again in 1999-2005. From the 19th of February to 31th of December 1998, he held the position of Ciechanów Voivode. In 1999-2002, he was a member of the Masovian Parliament (elected from the roster of the Solidarity Electoral Alliance party).
In 1980-1981 he chaired the company branch of the Solidarity Trade Union in the Agricultural Schools Complex in Golądkowo. From 1989 to 1992, he chaired the Winnica Municipality Civic Committee.
From the 7th of June 2006 to the 16th of November 2007, he was Secretary of State at the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and Government Plenipotentiary for shaping of the agricultural system.
On the 16th of November 2015, he was appointed to the position of minister without portfolio in Beata Szydło’s cabinet. He also assumed the position of Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Council of Ministers. From September to December 2016, he served the role of the Minister of the State Treasury. Also in September 2016, he was appointed Vice-Chairman of the Economic Committee of the Council of Ministers.
On the 11th of December 2017, he was appointed a minister without portfolio in the newly created cabinet of Mateusz Morawiecki and once again became the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Council of Ministers.